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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY
QTfjc Commontoealtf) of jWassncliusctts
DIVISION OF IMMIGRATION AND
Year ending November 30, 1940
Department of Education
Publication of this Document Approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Walter F. Downey, Commissioner
Division of Immigration and Americanization
Eva Whiting White, Chairman Boston 1944
Everett Churchill Belmont 1941
Narcizo Gomes New Bedford 1943
Bronislas A. Jezierski Cambridge 1943
Joan C. Kiely Lynn 1941
*Loretta Murphy Maiden 1940
* Mrs. ^Murphy's term expired November 30, l'J-40. Mrs. Eleanor C. Krauss of Brockton wa
appointed for a three-year term.
ANNUAL REPORT FOR YEAR ENDING NOVEMBER 30, 1940
The Board of Immigration and Americanization
When the original Bureau of Immigration was abolished in 1919 and its functions and
duties transferred to the Department of Education, the work was organized as a Division
of Immigration and Americanization functioning under the Commissioner of Education
with a director and an advisory board of six persons. In 1935, the position of director
was made a paid one, but otherwise the division operated as before under the Commis-
sioner with a director and an advisory board.
Chapter 409 of the Acts of 1939 has materially changed the organization of the
division. The division is now the only division of the Department of Education which
is organized without a director. Chapter 409 of the Acts of 1939 provides:
1. That the name of the advisory board is changed to the Board of Immigration
2. That the Division of Immigration and Americanization shall consist of a board
of six persons. Two members of the board are to be appointed annually for three
years each, by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Council. The
Governor shall designate one of the members as chairman. The board shall meet
at least once a month at such time as it may by rule determine, and when re-
quested by any member thereof. The members of the board shall receive no
compensation for their services.
Under the former organization the division had consisted of a director, appointed for
a five-year term, and a six-member advisory board, making a board of seven persons.
The new setup eliminates the seventh member of the board.
His Excellency, Governor Saltonstall, designated Mrs. Eva Whiting White as Chairman
of the Board of Immigration and Americanization. Under her leadership the board
organized for its first meeting on January 18, 1940.
The board voted to hold their regular meetings at four o'clock on the fourth Friday
of each month with a quorum of three established as sufficient for business. Subse-
quently nine meetings were held by the board.
The board voted that the Supervisor of Social Service continue to act as secretary of
the board. The program of the work of the division, as outlined by her, was approved
by the board, and she was directed to visit all the branch offices and report to the
board concerning field work.
The Staff of the Division
On November 30, 1940, the staff of the division consisted of nineteen civil service
employees, eleven of whom work in Boston while eight are assigned to the branch offices.
The work is organized under a Supervisor of Social Service, who functions as the execu-
tive of the division; four district agents, each of whom is in charge of a branch office;
five social workers, of whom four work in Boston and one in Springfield; two senior
clerks in the Boston office; one senior statistical clerk at Boston; three clerical employees
at Boston and three also at the branch offices. On the staff are four persons who speak
Italian, three who speak Polish, one Lithuanian-speaking worker, and one who speaks
The Offices of the Division
When the original Bureau of Immigration was organized in 1Q17, the Act creating it
provided that it "shall be furnished with suitable quarters in the State House." We
continued to maintain our main office at the State House after the Bureau became a
division of the Department of Education, although we moved to less spacious offices on
the second floor. When the Department of Education moved to 200 Newbury Street,
the division remained at the State House since no space was available for us in the new
P.D. 121 3
building. Our offices have been inadequate for our needs for some time and the increased
daily visits of clients in 1940 overcrowded the waiting room to such an extent that in
May we were forced to use the corridors adjacent to our offices as an auxiliary waiting
room. In addition, in the period from May to December, the Superintendent of Build-
ings loaned us an additional office, Room 413 ; in this large room we housed an emergency
naturalization aid project from July to December.
In 1940 the division maintained four full-time branch offices outside the State House
at Fall River, Lawrence, Springfield, and Worcester. The Springfield office was opened
in 1918, the Fall River and Lawrence offices in 1924, and the Worcester office in 1929.
The Fall River branch has had several locations and until last February was located
on the second floor in a building occupied by several state departments. When this
location was burned out new quarters were found for the division at 51 Franklin Street,
also on the second floor.
At Lawrence our office is located on the second floor of the Bay State Building, at
301 Essex Street. The location is excellent as it is on the main street and within easy
walking distance of City Hall, County Court House, Police Headquarters and District
Court, and the School Department offices.
At Springfield our offices are located on the sixth floor of an office building at 145
State Street. This floor is almost exclusively used by state offices and there are also
other state offices located elsewhere in the same building.
The Worcester office is located on the second floor of an office building at 476 Main
In two of the districts, only, has field work been undertaken this year — in Fall River
and Springfield. The district agent at the Fall River office visited Attleboro, in his
district, on a regular schedule seven times this year. His travelling expenses were paid
by the American Legion Post of that town who had requested that he come to aid in
their citizenship program. He also visited New Bedford on a weekly schedule beginning
January, 1940. It was impossible to keep the weekly schedule after September because
of the pressure of alien registration at Fall River. He plans to resume in January, 1941.
Through the courtesy of the county officials, space was given him in the Superior Court
Library at the Bristol County Court House. In addition, the custodians at the Court
House cooperated in taking appointments for him so that on his weekly visit he can
work on a schedule. The volume of work in New Bedford, however, is so great that it
cannot be adequately handled in a weekly visit by one agent. In order to interview the
fifty or sixty persons who call each week, it is necessary for the agent to complete the
applications only partially, and the accumulated paper work presents a rather serious
problem for his one clerical assistant. Of the 1944 clients recorded as residents of New
Bedford in our annual report, 1899 were served by the Fall River office and most of
them through this weekly office hour. Because of limitations of time, space, clerical
help and the fact that the division has been unable to spend adequately on travel, the
service to New Bedford by means of a field trip from Fall River does not reach a
comparable number of persons to those served when a separate office was maintained
in New Bedford. In no one year while we maintained a full-time office there were less
than 3600 persons served. The maintenance of weekly field service is, however, a definite
attempt to meet the New Bedford problem and is the most that the division can do
unless the Legislature provides funds for the reopening of the New Bedford branch.
There is no question but that even this limited service is worth while.
At Holyoke in the City Hall, the Springfield office maintained a weekly office hour
from November, 1939, to May, 1940. This service was a reopening of a service for-
merly extended to Holyoke through the Springfield office, and discontinued during the
illness and absence of the former district agent. The reopening was specifically requested
by Miss Anne Warren, Supervisor of Adult Alien Education in Holyoke, with whose
program the division has had the opportunity to cooperate for many years. It was
possible for us to reopen the Holyoke service without cost to the division because the
social worker at Springfield lives in Holyoke and we therefore did not have to pay any
The field services formerly maintained in the Merrimack Valley by the Lawrence
branch have not been reopened as funds were not available. The Lawrence agent for-
merly visited on regular schedule the following communities irx his district : Gloucester,
Haverhill, Lowell, Newburyport, and Salem. The Field Service was usually from Oc-
tober to May. In 1939 there was no service from October to December and in 1940
no service whatever.
It is to be hoped, however, that funds may be made available for some field travel,
even though it may be less frequent and on a less regular schedule. There are at least
a half dozen communities which have active adult education programs who have asked
for visits by agents or social workers once or twice during the school year. Legion
posts, and other patriotic organizations, settlement houses, and social agencies often
desire an expert for an occasional visit. A reopening of a revised field schedule is a
future task for the division.
The Numbers Served in 1940
In 1940 the division recorded the largest number of clients in its history Our total
number for the year was 53,653 or over 10,000 more than the preceding year. The
heaviest year, prior to 1940 was 1938 when 45,835 were recorded. Of the total number,
29,772 called at Boston, 7,018 at Fall River, 6,056 at Lawrence, 5,483 at Worcester, and
5,124 at Springfield. The rise was sharp at Boston which showed a gain of over 7,000
over the prior year. In three of the four branch offices, also, there was a rise of over
2,000— Fall River showing a gain of 2,706, Springfield of 2,304, and Lawrence of 2,131.
The Worcester office showed a gain of 479 over the prior year.
Problems of Growth
We could have been of service to fully twice as many clients in the Boston office had
we had staff or space to serve them, and probably each branch office was also obliged
to turn away prospective clients. By mid-May from one hundred to one hundred fifty
clients called daily at the Boston office. We attempted to help all who called, but,
because of the small staff, clients had to wait several hours for attention and the day's
interviews frequently were in progress after six and seven o'clock.
To meet this emergency, the board voted to place clients on a quota basis and to
restrict the daily intake to a possible maximum of one hundred. Beginning in July,
this was done. The quota of one hundred was usually filled by eleven o'clock. Thirty
to fifty clients were frequently on hand when the doors opened at nine. Conservatively,
therefore, we estimate that twice our recorded number could have been served had we
the staff to take care of the additional crowd. The branch offices were also directed
to so arrange the intake of work that so far as clients were concerned the offices were
maintained at a nine to five basis. Of course it was impossible to complete the day's
work on a nine to five basis even though the doors were closed to clients at five o'clock.
Placing a limitation on the daily intake of clients at the Boston office, however, was
not a complete solution of the problem of increased work. It was a necessary remedy
for an acute condition but, in itself, accomplished little except to defer the problem to
a later day or send the clients to less disinterested sources of help. The division, how-
ever, was fortunate to receive an offer of practical help from the Governor's office.
Mr. Russell Gerould, one of the Governor's secretaries, conferred with the Commissioner
of Education and offered to supply the division with emergency volunteer helpers and
room to house them. The board voted to accept the volunteer assistance and, with vol-
unteer supervision and with volunteer and W.P.A. workers loaned from an educational
project of the Department of Education, a naturalization aid annex was opened and
functioned successfully from July to December 1940.
The emergency setup was limited to naturalization aid. The work was closely super-
vised and checked so that errors could be rectified before clients had left. The whole
project was placed under the supervision of a volunteer worker who had the practical
experience in naturalization aid work. He organized the other volunteers, planned the
distribution of work, and checked all applications for accuracy. During the summer
months about 500 clients weekly were waited on through this office.
The work of volunteers and other auxiliary workers not on the permanent staff con-
stitutes an administrative problem particularly if these additional workers are to be
used with the clients. Not only is naturalization aid a very technical service, but our
clients are often inarticulate about their difficulties and are further handicapped by lack
of English. The problem of recruiting of such additional workers is quite definitely one
of elimination, first, of those who seek to work as volunteers to get the technical knowl-
edge to continue the work on a commercial basis; second, of those who have such a
momentary interest in the problem that the time spent in training them for the work
is not compensated by the work they contribute in return. The experience with volun-
teers in 1940 has demonstrated that, properly chosen, organized, and trained, a volunteer
group of workers could be used with profit by the division and with satisfaction by
those who might be willing to personally help in the state's program of making Amer-
icans. In these days of defense preparation when the great need of unity is everywhere
apparent, there is evident more than ever the need of understanding between Ameri-
cans by birth and those who seek to be Americans by choice. A well organized volun-
teer program under proper guidance and supervision will prove a means to make De-
mocracy work by furthering such understanding.
The Alien Registration Act of 1940
The Alien Registration Act of 1940 was signed by President Roosevelt on June 28,
1940. It provided for the compulsory registration of all aliens resident in the United
States in a four-month period from August 27, 1940 to December 27, 1940. For the
first time in the history of the American republic, aliens were placed in a separate and
distinct category from the citizen population of the United States and required to reg-
ister, give information about themselves under oath, and be fingerprinted.
P.D. 121 5
By executive order on May 23, 1940, the president had transferred the work of ad-
ministering the immigration and naturalization laws from the Department of Labor to
the Department of Justice. The responsibility of the administration of the alien regis-
tration law was therefore that of the Department of Justice. The requirements of the
law were clear and plain. Every alien over fourteen years of age had to go personally
to a United States Post Office and nil out a questionnaire telling the government of his
name, or any alias used, address, date of birth, sex, occupation, employer, relatives,
physical appearance, citizenship, marital status, military and criminal record, when and
where he entered the United States, how long he intended to stay here, and whether
he was white, Negro, Japanese, or Chinese. He also was required to name any club,
organization, or society of which he had ever been a member. Registration was free.
Guardians registered for insane aliens and for children under fourteen. These children,
however, are required to register themselves when they pass their fourteenth birthday.
All aliens are required to notify the Immigration and Naturalization Service of any
change of address within five days of its occurrence. The alien who registered was
fingerprinted and eventually received from Washington as proof of his registration a
card bearing his name, address, registration number, and fingerprint. Six months'
imprisonment or $1,000 fine or both were possible penalties, under the law, for non-
registration or failure to tell the truth.
Every effort was made by the President, the Attorney General, and the Director of
Alien Registration to impress upon aliens that registration and fingerprinting carried no
stigma and that it was a defense measure destined to protect all the people of the United
State, citizen and alien alike, from the disloyal persons resident here. The cooperation
of the press, the clergy, the professions, and social agencies was sought in bringing the
act to the attention of the aliens. The Solicitor General of the United States called
to a conference at Washington on July 23 all social agencies which worked with the
foreign born. To this conference the division sent its supervisor as its representative.
Throughout the registration period the division received frequent bulletins from Wash-
ington and cooperated with the federal program by participating in several meetings
arranged for social agencies, by filling out hundreds of blanks for aliens, by sending
circular letters to recent clients advising them what they should do and also acted as
a consultant for social agencies cooperating in the government program.
The preliminary figures of alien registration show almost five million aliens resident
in the United States. Massachusetts ranks fourth in the number of alien residents, as
the preliminary count shows that 356,028 or 7.5% of all aliens in the country live in
Localities Served by the Division
Residents of 301 of the cities and towns of the Commonwealth were recorded as
clients of the Division. The main office at Boston recorded clients from 235 localities,
the Worcester office from 88, the Springfield office 51, Lawrence 50, and Fall River from
34 cities and towns. As might be expected, the largest number of clients came from
the cities where our offices are located. Residents of Boston numbered 14,219; of Fall
River, 3,921; Worcester, 3,662; Lawrence, 3,649; and Springfield, 3,031.
Fifteen other cities of the Commonwealth were recorded with more than 500 clients
each, as follows:
Of the fifteen cities, all but four were served by the Boston office and are located in
the metropolitan Boston district. New Bedford was visited on schedule from Fall River.
Holyoke was served on a regular schedule from Springfield. Chicopee residents called at
the Holyoke field office. Lowell clients for the most part went to the branch office at
Lawrence for service.
The Nationality of Clients
Our clients were born in sixty-eight different countries. A surprisingly large number
of inquiries this year came from native Americans who sought information for a foreign-
born relative, friend, or business associate. We recorded 3,698 inquiries from native
Americans. Of our clients, 25,133 were born in Europe; 22,889 were natives of the
British Empire or its possessions; 3,811 were born in the Americas; 20 were born in
Africa and 1,800 in Asia.
6 P.D. 121
Persons born in Canada comprised the largest national group, numbering 13,782.
More than half of this number were of British stock from the Maritime Provinces,
as only 6,694 were listed as French Canadians. Ireland is recorded as the birthplace
of 3,811 and England of 2,594. Natives of Newfoundland numbered 1,079 and Scotland
We recorded as clients 8,085 persons born in Italy, 3,744 born in Poland, 3,316 born
in Portugal, 2,878 born in Russia, 2,329 born in Lithuania, 1,171 born in Sweden,
904 born in Turkey, 836 born in Germany, 729 born in Greece, and 704 born in Syria.
All the other countries in Europe or Asia for whom we listed clients furnished a total
of less than 500 each.
Classified by racial stock or mother tongue rather than by country of birth, we re-
corded 6,694 French Canadians, 3,596 Jews, 3,215 Poles, 2,065 Lithuanians, 899 Arme-
nians, 683 Syrians, 550 Negroes, and 495 Russians.
Problems of Citizenship
Over seventy-seven per cent of the persons who called upon us for help brought
problems of citizenship. 41,531 men and women were recorded in that classification.
We helped 10,588 to fill out applications for first papers, 16,427 with applications for
final papers, and gave 13,719 persons advice or information on the naturalization pro-
cedure. In addition, we assisted 391 persons to fill out application for duplicates of some
type of naturalization document. 333 citizens were helped to apply for certificates
of derivative citizenship.
It has not been possible to make a complete analysis of all the records of those apply-
ing for citizenship. We have, however, made a "sampling" of the total and have ana-
lyzed this sample taken from the Boston figures to show certain facts on the age, sex,
length of residence in the United States, and the country of birth of those seeking to
More Women than Men are Seeking to be Naturalized
The Boston figures show that 9,505 women and 6,352 men were helped with appli-
cations for citizenship. The preponderance of women was most noticeable in second
paper applications. There were 3,399 women and 2,953 men recorded as applicants
for first papers; 6,460 women and 3,045 men as applicants for final papers. The reason
for this is largely due to the naturalization law. From February 5, 1855, to September
22, 1922, the citizenship of a married woman, followed that of her husband. She could
not be naturalized independently of him while she remained in the married state. If
an alien woman married a citizen or if her alien husband became naturalized any time
between 1855 and 1922, she automatically gained citizenship. In addition, a law was
passed March 2, 1907, which deprived an American woman of her citizenship if she
married a foreigner and made it impossible for her to regain her citizenship so long
as she remained married to an alien spouse. On September 22, 1922, the so-called equal
nationality law was passed which enabled American women to regain citizenship lost
by marriage and which stopped the gift of citizenship to a woman because of the citi-
zenship of her husband. It also permitted all women, married or single, to seek natu-
ralization in their own right. Many married women took no independent steps toward
naturalization, however, and remained alien although their husbands had become citizens.
With the growing anti-alien feeling, these women desired to complete their naturalization.
In many cases these women were the only alien members of an American family as
the husband had become naturalized, although too late to bring his wife into citizenship,
and the children were American born. Except for the technicalities of naturalization,
the woman was already completely American in sympathy and outlook.
The Ages of Those Who Seek to Become Citizens
There is a well publicized opinion that the increase of citizenship applications is due
to the desire of aged aliens to get the benefits of old age assistance to which, in Massa-
chusetts, they are not eligible until they have acquired citizenship. It is true, of course,
that in some cases city and town welfare departments have urged their aged clients to
become citizens so that the local authorities could be relieved of a portion of the cost
of maintenance, since the federal government pays a subsidy to the state which, in turn,
reimburses the locality for those receiving old age assistance under the Social Security
Act. An analysis of the figures, however, shows no striking preponderance of the elderly.
Actually less than two per cent of the total seeking final papers were over seventy,
and only about four per cent of those seeking first papers had reached that age. Full
citizenship is a requirement for old age assistance in Massachusetts, and for those over
seventy the possibility of living to complete the two-year requirement for a valid
declaration of intention has some hazards. Taking a much larger age group, those over
sixty, we find that twenty per cent of the total of those seeking first papers fall into
this group, while less than ten per cent of those seeking final papers have passed the
age of sixty.
P.D. 121 7
The persons who sought to take the first step toward naturalization in 1940 were an
older group than those who were applying for final papers. The modal age for first
paper applicants was fifty-six; for those seeking final papers, forty. A little over ten
per cent of those applying for first papers were under thirty; about seven per cent of
those trying for final papers were under that age.
Length of Residence in the United States Before Applying for Citizenship
More of those seeking citizenship in 1940 had come to the United States since the
first quota law of 1921 than prior to that period. This post World War migration,
those who arrived in the United States since 1921, numbered 8,073. Those who came
before 1921 numbered 7,774.
The greatest number of immigrants who came in any one year were recorded in 1923 ;
of the applicants for citizenship in 1940 almost 1,000 arrived in that year. There were,
of course, some 252 persons who applied for citizenship during the first year of their
residence here. There were also a number who had lived many years in this country
before taking the step toward citizenship. One applicant had lived here 61 years before
More than half of the applicants for first or second papers for citizenship had come
to the United States as minors. These 7,949 persons could, of course, take no final step
toward citizenship until they reached their majority, so that a protracted delay, even of
many years, may have been due to infancy and not lack of desire.
Former Nationality of Those Seeking Citizenship
Subjects of the British Empire led all other nationalities in those recorded for naturali-
zation. Of the group seeking first papers, 2,982 were so classified, while 4,660 of those
seeking final papers were British, making a total of 7,642 out of a total of 15,857 appli-
cants, or nearly half. The next important national group was Italian, with 911 persons
of that nationality seeking first and 2,127 seeking second papers, or a total of 3,038, or
less than one-fifth of the total. No other group except natives of Russia made a total
of 1,000. Russian-born applicants numbering 516 sought first papers, while 693 sought
final papers. Only 127 of these Russian-born applicants were Russian by race, however.
Problems of Immigration
The year's record shows that 6,448 clients came to us with immigration problems.
Foremost in importance was the problem of the separated family, complicated more
than ever this year by world conditions. In many of these cases our client was a citizen
of the United States but the relatives whom he sought to bring here were alien. Petitions
for immigration visas were excuted for 121 citizens, and 133 applications were filled out
for aliens who sought to bring friends or relatives here. Affidavits of support to aid
prospective immigrants were prepared for 1,547 clients. Information on the immigra-
tion laws was given to 1,860 persons.
Aliens Illegally Here
The alien registration of 1940 will undoubtedly reveal that many aliens are illegally in
the country. Of this number, probably the larger group have lived here for many years
and the illegality of their status is due not to deliberate evasion of the law but to lack of
proper records. Many persons who came here as children have no proof of legal entry
and no knowledge as to when they came, through what port or under what name. For
those aliens who came here prior to July 1, 1924, the immigration laws provide a remedy
for this irregular status. They may be registered at a federal immigration station, and,
on payment of registration fee and proof of good character and continuous residence
since July 1, 1924, may change their illegal status to a regular one. The division assisted
1,172 persons to apply for this registry procedure in 1940. The alien must show a con-
tinuous proof of residence, preferably by documents, from just before July 1, 1924, to
the present. At our Boston office we have helped some 4,377 with these applications. A
study of their records shows that 3,605 of the total of 4,377 came to this country before
the head tax of $8.00 was exacted from immigrants. Approximately 6/7 of the total
came before the strict immigration regulation or head tax period. Only 1,937 of the
total came as adults. All the others came as minors. In fact 1,263 of them came before
their sixteenth birthday and were exempt from head tax. Only 203 of the total helped
came after the visa fee of .$10 was demanded. The fee for registry has been $10 but
is to be raised to $18 in January, 1941, so that aliens who legalize their status by registry
will pay the same amount now assessed on a new immigrant — $8 for head tax and $10
For those aliens who entered the country since July 1, 1924, the present immigration
laws offer no easy remedy for their illegal status. All such persons are, under the law,
deportable. Because most of them have acquired family ties in America, and in addi-
tion, war abroad makes deportation to Europe a hazard to life, the government has
permitted some such aliens to change their status by leaving the country voluntarily,
securing a visa at an American Consulate abroad, and returning as a new immigrant.
For those who are not Canadian citizens, but whom Canada will admit for the purpose
of visiting an American Consulate for a visa, the government has given a pre-examination
on their admissibility to enter the United States at an immigration station in this coun-
try. If the examination discloses that the alien will be admissible to the United States,
the federal immigration officials will give the alien a letter admitting him to Canada.
In most cases under this procedure the alien is successful in obtaining the immigration
visa from the American Consul in Canada and successfully returns to the United States.
Italians and Germans are not admissible to Canada because they are subjects of enemy
countries, so these nationals must attempt departure from the United States and return
thereto without benefit of the pre-examination.
The division has assisted a number of such aliens to change their status and re-enter
the United States for legal permanent residence. In most of these cases the person
illegally here is the breadwinner and the main support of a citizen family. Help in regu-
larizing an illegal status is not primarily done to benefit the alien who has entered in
violation of the law but to prevent the citizen family from separation from its bread-
winner with the resulting economic and social conditions.
Applications For Services For All Offices
For Year Ending November 30, 1940
Application for first paper
Application for final paper
Application for certificate of
derivative citizenship .
Application for duplicate pa-
Application for duplicate cer-
tificate of arrival
Citizenship information .
Application for record of legal
Application for re-entry per-
Petition for visa
Application for extension of
Application for record of reg-
Certificate of identity
Miscellaneous Information .
Translation and Interpreta-
In an evaluation of our work for 1940 we find an affirmative and positive answer
to the query, Does the Division fill a present need? The increase of numbers served
is one answer to the question. The foreign born need and use the service the state has
provided for them. Furthermore, the preliminary figures of the alien registration show
that Massachusetts has over seven per cent of the alien population of the nation, rank-
ing fourth of the states in the number of the foreign born. The actual preliminary count
of 356,028 indicates that there is still a problem of the unnaturalized foreign born within
The maintenance of the state program "to bring the Commonwealth and its residents
of foreign origin into sympathetic and mutually helpful relationship'' is an insurance
against the success of foreign propaganda. Men and women from other lands who have
found at an office maintained by the state help in solving their special problems of
adjustment and guidance in the road to American citizenship which most of them long
for are immune to forces who seek "to play upon many strings here." The danger ma^
never become a real peril, but the insurance against it by wav of a state program of
Americanization forms a safe foundation for constructive Americanism.